KyuNam Han(1977), 'The dot, Its Configurations' and Spacial Illusion, MFA Thesis, The Ohio State University.
An Excerpts from the catalogue ;'Kyu Nam Han's paintings(1986)introduction by Eleanor Heartney; Introduction to the Exhibition; 'Kyu Nam Han painting',
Blue Hill Art Center(1991):and Artsforum gallery(1988);'Synthesis of Opposites: Deconstruction and Reconstruction', Walker Hill Art Center(1995),'Bridging the World', 'Cutting across the Grid'
cf: Excerpt from an article, '"Korea/New York 86", the Thorpe Intermedia Gallery, Sparkill, New York
Duck and Rabbit and Diagrams ; Excerpts from M.F.A Thesis:(1977);
'The Dot, its Illusion and its Configuration', The Ohio State University"
The following statements are the Excerpts from:'Nonlinear dynamics in meso and nano scales: fundamental aspects and applications': Editors: Marcos G.E.da Luz and Celia Anteneodo
Nonlinearity, as well as complexity, is observed in an incredible large number of phenomena around us, both natural and man-made:
oscillations in grandstands, ecological trade-offs in tropical rain forests,
climate, and the asteroids belt evolution in the solar system, just to cite few examples. Less known, however, is that it is not limited to large spatial sizes.
At meso (10-6 m) and even nano (10-9 m) scales, nonlinear effects may also play a fundamental role
in determining system behaviour,
due to the signature of chaos in the quantum mechanical domain -
the so called quantum chaos -
or (if the processes are classical in nature) due to the involved nonlinear forces and dynamical equations.
Nonlinear dynamics in meso and nano scales: fundamental aspects and applications is a compilation of articles
which address many different contexts where chaos and complex behaviour emerge at very small scales.
This issue does not intend to cover all aspects of the subject but instead provide a general overview of topics such as:
de-coherence and the environmental influence on quantum problems;
large molecules dynamics; fluid and plasma physics;
nonlinear wave propagation; statistical mechanics and thermodynamics at small scales; and response theory
- hence serving as a guide to possible new directions of research;
relevant problems which still need deeper analysis;
and what concrete situations, new methodologies and techniques should be developed to understand nonlinearity at very small scales.
The Six Cannons in far Eastern Asian tradition;
1. During China's Southern Chi Period(479-501 A.D) Hsieh Ho wrote six cannons for the Artist.
Briefly, they are (1) that the painters vital brush movement should convey the spiritual element of the matter being observed.
We can see Western counterparts in the work of Kandinsky, Gorky, Tobey, and Pollock, among others.
(2) The brush-stroke technique should have bone structure with 'passages'.
This method is similar to the Cubist, Constructivist, and Abstract Expressionist movement in the west,
and to the work of Braque, Mondrian, Malevich, and Pollock in Particular.
(3) Execution of the subject matter should be performed abstractly, but only after adhering to the first and second canons
(4) There should be a definite color dynamic.
(5) The distribution should be based on logical principles;and
(6) The artist must always respect tradition while at the same seeking innovation through his own original style.
These Six Cannons are the basis of all Eastern art.
In the West, beginning with the Post-Impressionists in Paris, the Expressionists in Munich anf the Abstract Expressionists in America,
painters began to move away from objective representational illusionism and towards a new subjective reality
by introducing the importance of the brush-stroke itself as the subject matter of their work.
With this signicant transition the hard line separating Eastern and Western art(and culture)began to disappear.
Kyu nam Han talks on his paintings; at Saddle River,
Kyu nam Han,'Dynasty'(1984), oil on canvas ,72 inch x 56 inch
"4계 II (四季,Four Seasons)",(1984) oil on canvas,549cm x 122cm
Talks and Thoughts
Linguistic Structures and Visual Images: The Grammatology of picture making and Caligraphic Hieroglyphics: Passages and Grids in Far Eastern Landscape Painting
Passages and Grid.
I have been interpreting Korean Modernism within the Western cultural context, and vice-versa—Western Modernism within the Far Eastern cultural context.
I incorporate traditional values and methodologies, such as 'perspective' and 'chiaroscuro' of the West, and 'chun'( 峻,埈, passage and grid) from the East.
I blend Eastern isometric perspective with traditional Western linear perspective painting
to create a fusion of both depth and flatness,
apply calligraphic principles to recreate new pictorial images.
in comparison to the classic subjects; the Dot, its Illusion and its Configurations.
I think it's time for me to explore the new paths of the paintings, of the formal methodologies and criterion, and the new issues of visual languages on the new subjects.:Within these context I would like to explore the metaphors of the ironies and contradictions existing in words and forms;
the ambivalent dichotomies that I am pursuing ; Certainty within Uncertainty: Orderly manner within Disorderly situation:
linearity versus nonlinearity. and so on and so forth.
In one of the most common forms of synesthesia, grapheme → color synesthesia, individual letters of the alphabet and numbers (collectively referred to as graphemes), are "shaded" or "tinged" with a color. While different individuals usually do not report the same colors for all letters and numbers, studies with large numbers of synesthetes find some commonalities across letters (e.g., A is likely to be red).
As a child, Pat Duffy told her father, "I realized that to make an R all I had to do was first write a P and draw a line down from its loop. And I was so surprised that I could turn a yellow letter into an orange letter just by adding a line." Another grapheme synesthete says, "When I read, about five words around the exact one I'm reading are in color. It's also the only way I can spell. In elementary school I remember knowing how to spell the word 'priority' [with an "i" rather than an "e"] because ... an 'e' was out of place in that word because 'e's were yellow and didn't fit."
Spatial Sequence Synesthesia 
A special form of the condition, in which people tend to see all numerical sequences they come across as points in space. For instance, the number 1 might be farther away and the number 2 might be closer. A new study shows that those with SSS have superior memories. They were able to recall past events and memories far better, and in far greater detail than those without the condition.
Sound → color synesthesia 
According to Richard Cytowic, sound → color synesthesia, or chromesthesia is "something like fireworks": voice, music, and assorted environmental sounds such as clattering dishes or dog barks trigger color and firework shapes that arise, move around, and then fade when the sound ends. For some, the stimulus type is limited (e.g., music only, or even just a specific musical key); for others, a wide variety of sounds triggers synesthesia.
Sound often changes the perceived hue, brightness, scintillation, and directional movement. Some individuals see music on a "screen" in front of their faces. Deni Simon, for whom music produces waving lines "like oscilloscope configurations – lines moving in color, often metallic with height, width and, most importantly, depth. My favorite music has lines that extend horizontally beyond the 'screen' area."
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Synesthesia (disambiguation).
How someone with synesthesia might perceive certain letters and numbers.
Synesthesia (also spelled synæsthesia or synaesthesia, plural synesthesiæ or synæsthesiæ), from the ancient Greek σύν (syn), "together," and αἴσθησις (aisthēsis), "sensation," is a neurological condition in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway. People who report such experiences are known as synesthetes. Recently, difficulties have been recognized in finding an adequate definition of synesthesia, as many different phenomena have been covered by this term and in many cases the term synesthesia ("union of senses") seems to be a misnomer. A more accurate term for the phenomenon may be ideasthesia.
Main article: History of synesthesia research
The interest in colored hearing dates back to Greek antiquity, when philosophers asked if the color (chroia, what we now call timbre) of music was a quantifiable quality. Isaac Newton proposed that musical tones and color tones shared common frequencies, as did Goethe in his book, "Theory of Color." Despite this idea being false, there is a long history of building color organs such as the clavier a lumieres on which to perform colored music in concert halls.
The first medical description of colored hearing is in a German 1812 thesis. The father of psychophysics, Gustav Fechner reported the first empirical survey of colored letter photisms among 73 synesthetes in 1871, followed in the 1880s by Francis Galton. Research into synesthesia proceeded briskly in several countries, but due to the difficulties in measuring subjective experiences and the rise of behaviorism, which made the study of any subjective experience taboo, synesthesia faded into scientific oblivion between 1930 and 1980.
As the 1980s cognitive revolution began to make inquiry into internal subjective states respectable again, scientists once again looked to synesthesia. Led in the United States by Larry Marks and Richard Cytowic, and later in England by Simon Baron-Cohen and Jeffrey Gray, research explored the reality, consistency, and frequency of synesthetic experiences. In the late 1990s, the focus settled on grapheme → color synesthesia, one of the most common and easily studied types. Synesthesia is now the topic of scientific books and papers, Ph.D. theses, documentary films, and even novels.
Since the rise of the Internet in the 1990, synesthetes began contacting one another and creating Web sites devoted to the condition. These early grew into international organizations such as the American Synesthesia Association, the UK Synaesthesia Association, the Belgian Synaesthesia Association, the German Synesthesia Association and the Netherlands Synesthesia Web Community.
Landscapes and New York
Front Door of the Studio
Main article: Ideasthesia
Evidence has shown that concurrents in synesthesia may be operating at the level of the meaning of the stimulus (i.e. semantic representations), not at the level of the sensory inputs. For example, if presented with letter A, a synesthete would associated concurrent experiences only once the letter has been recognized and the meaning of the stimulus has been extracted. Hence, the basics for understanding synesthesia may be in the semantic structures that, uniquely for synesthetes, associate sensory-like experiences. It has been proposed that a more accurate definition of the phenomenon is within the context of ideasthesia.
Given synesthetes' extraordinary conscious experiences, researchers hope that their study will provide better understanding of consciousness and its neural correlates, meaning what the brain mechanisms that make us conscious might be. In particular, synesthesia might be relevant to the philosophical problem of qualia, given that synesthetes experience extra qualia (e.g., a colored sound).
.. David Hockney, who perceives music as color, shape, and configuration, and who uses these perceptions when painting opera stage sets but not while creating his other artworks. Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky combined four senses: color, hearing, touch, and smell. Vladimir Nabokov describes his grapheme-color synesthesia at length in his autobiography, Speak, Memory and portrays it in some of his characters. Composers include Duke Ellington, Franz Liszt, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, and Olivier Messiaen, whose three types of complex colors are rendered explicitly in musical chord structures that he invented. Physicist Richard Feynman describes his colored equations in his autobiography, What Do You Care What Other People Think?
Other notable synesthetes include musicians Billy Joel,p. 89, 91 Itzhak Perlman,p. 53 Ida Maria, Brian Chase and Patrick Stump; actress Stephanie Carswell (credited as Stephanie Montreux); inventor Nikola Tesla; electronic musician Richard D. James aka Aphex Twin (who claims to be inspired by lucid dreams as well as music); and classical pianist Helene Grimaud. Although it has not been verified, Pharrell Williams, of the groups The Neptunes and N.E.R.D., claims to experience synesthesia, and to have used it as the basis of the album Seeing Sounds. Singer/songwriter Marina and the Diamonds experiences music → color synesthesia, and reports colored days of the week.
This article is about Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. For other uses, see Intelligence.
Abilities, traits and constructs
g factor Intelligence quotient
Knowledge Learning Memory
Problem solving Reaction time
Models and theories
Fluid and crystallized intelligence
Theory of multiple intelligences
Three stratum theory
Triarchic theory of intelligence
PASS theory of intelligence
Fields of study
Evolution of human intelligence
Psychometrics Heritability of IQ
Impact of health on intelligence Environment and intelligence
Neuroscience and intelligence
Race and intelligence Religiosity and intelligence
v t e
The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences as a model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into specific (primarily sensory) "modalities", rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability.
Andreas Demetriou suggests that theories which overemphasize the autonomy of the domains are as simplistic as the theories that overemphasize the role of general intelligence and ignore the domains. He agrees with Gardner that there are indeed domains of intelligence that are relevantly autonomous of each other. Some of the domains, such as verbal, spatial, mathematical, and social intelligence are identified by most lines of research in psychology.
In Demetriou's theory, one of the neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development, Gardner is criticized for underestimating the effects exerted on the various domains of intelligences by processes that define general processing efficiency, such as speed of processing, executive functions, working memory, and meta-cognitive processes underlying self-awareness and self-regulation.
All of these processes are integral components of general intelligence that regulate the functioning and development of different domains of intelligence.
According to a 2006 study many of Gardner's "intelligences" correlate with the g factor, supporting the idea of a single dominant type of intelligence. According to the study, each of the domains proposed by Gardner involved a blend of g, of cognitive abilities other than g, and, in some cases, of non-cognitive abilities or of personality characteristics.
Linda Gottfredson (2006) has argued that thousands of studies support the importance of intelligence quotient (IQ) in predicting school and job performance, and numerous other life outcomes. In contrast, empirical support for non-g intelligences is lacking or very poor. She argued that despite this the ideas of multiple non-g intelligences are very attractive to many due to the suggestion that everyone can be smart in some way.
The multiple intelligences
Gardner articulated seven criteria for a behavior to be considered an intelligence.  These were that the intelligences showed:
Potential for brain isolation by brain damage,
Place in evolutionary history,
Presence of core operations,
Susceptibility to encoding (symbolic expression),
A distinct developmental progression,
The existence of savants, prodigies and other exceptional people,
Support from experimental psychology and psychometric findings.
Gardner chose eight abilities that he held to meet these criteria: spatial, linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.
He later suggested that existential and moral intelligence may also be worthy of inclusion.